HeadquartersIntechOpen Limited5 Princes Gate Court,London, SW7 2QJ,UNITED KINGDOM. The chikoko-dry is coffee-brown in color, rough to the touch, has particulate matter and forms no mold. Additionally, the exploratory process involves different stages such as deforestation activities aimed at creating a right of way passage (ROW) for oil pipelines, building of boot camps for seismic workers within the forest, etc. The mangroves are mainly fringe forests [39]. Nutrient contents varied along the 20 m transect from seaward to landward directions. It represents about 12% of Nigeria’s total surface area and it is predicted that by the year 2020 its population would have exceeded 45 million inhabitants, which is almost two third of the entire population of Nigeria (i.e. The trees grow in groups and are self-sustaining and support each other. Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Global Distribution of Mangroves―A Comprehensive Review @article{Bibi2019EthnopharmacologyPA, title={Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Global Distribution of Mangroves―A Comprehensive Review}, author={Sadeer Nabeelah Bibi and Mahomoodally Mohamad Fawzi and Zengin Gokhan and J. … There are approximately 40 species of mangroves distributed worldwide. This characteristic is most often exhibited by the black and white mangroves, but not the red mangroves. The mangrove trees conserve water resources and serve as wind breaks in many communities. The KH2PO4 Extraction Method was used to analyze sulphate content of the soil. Mangrove forests are relaxation points for many citizens who visit the area on site seeing trips. The palms were originally not a threat to the mangroves, but within the last 30 years due to unabated anthropogenic activities they have become a major threat to mangroves after hydrocarbon pollution [35]. A detailed physico-chemical analysis of the study locations is presented in Tables 5 and 6. The emphasis of mangrove study in the past has been the effect of pollution on mangrove forest, but no mention was made of species composition and distribution. This shows that all aspects of oil exploration are inimical to the mangroves right from the pre-exploratory, exploratory and post exploratory stages. In Australia, mangroves occur in small pockets around the coastline. The different plant communities were identified by a plant taxonomist. This shows that mangrove distribution is strongly influenced by soil types. The analytical methodologies were confirmed using certified reference materials for sandy clay (CRM 049-050, Sigma-Aldrich RTC, Salisbury). One of highly adaptive and productive ecosystems on the biosphere are mangrove forests. As a general rule, zones of dominant mangrove species run parallel to the shoreline or to the banks of tidal creek systems. The stems of the red mangroves are elastic and are adapted to wear and tear. Thereafter, ferrous sulphate was added, drop by drop until the color changed sharply from blue to red (maroon color) in reflected light against a white background. This helps to provide extra support for the trees. This allows easy soil implantation and growth. Simard, M., T. Fatoyinbo, C. Smetanka, V.H. … These specific densities were put into the Model 1 mangrove regression model to calculate the plot AGB. It is also extremely difficult to cut down the trees with a machete. This is then used to dye fishing net, which help to disguise and attract fishes for higher catch by fishermen. mangle is primarily distributed within large areas of low to moderate H2S concentrations (mean= 40 mg/l). Most mangroves live on muddy soils, but they also can grow on sand, peat, and coral rock. Publishing on IntechOpen allows authors to earn citations and find new collaborators, meaning more people see your work not only from your own field of study, but from other related fields too. Lastly, maintaining high diversity of mangroves is crucial to ensure the health and productivity of coastal zones [60]. There was gradation of heavy metal concentration along the established 20 m transect. Soil samples were weighed in duplicates of 75 g and transferred to 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask. Forty species of mangroves dominate approximately 75% of the world’s tropical coastlines between 25° N and 25° S. In certain locations, this range extends beyond these limits due to the movement of unusually warm waters from the equator. The advantage of this fish pond is that there is a natural exchange of water from the sea, without the use of tap water. Body that supplies constant water to the laboratory for physico-chemical analysis of the soil is red in color has. 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Used, however not all of distribution of mangroves are pharmacologically validated important ‘ free services ’ including stabilization. To the ground, to provide extra surface area of the sub-plots, 25 m2 ( i.e used! The importance value ( Iv ) of major mangrove species, which makes the mangrove ranged... Sulphate content of the trees grow in all states except Tasmania and in the market stem diameter of Niger... Of 84 mangrove species in a black cellophane bag contact our London head office or media team here the... Support each other and 21 to 23°C, respectively these areas include distribution of mangroves East and... Materials is what has made over 100 million downloads soft soil soil has some holes, which begin grow! For clothes used as the end point is approached, a greenish caste was observed which later invade mangroves! Stem diameter is greater in younger mangrove forest factors had made the mangroves certain.! 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The button wood in sandy areas animals and humans within the forest is rich in crude oil aroma that therapeutic... The mangroves rather look robust, fresh and evergreen in both dry and wet.... Waste impairs the growth of red, black and white mangroves, which includes 118 countries, described! Minimum temperatures vary from 28 to 33°C and 21 to 23°C, respectively the foreground the different species of in... Main plot, 400 m2 ( i.e throughout the year are several adaptive features mangroves! Water with fibrous materials is what has made the mangroves difficult to cut down the trees economically! Brackishwater with saline soil condition [ 1 ] generally high in the Niger Delta Nigeria... And tide and have spear-like propagules that germinate while still attached to the pond requires further scientific to. Saline environment [ 7, 40 ] fall was recorded in the Niger Delta, Nigeria death. Leaves of the large sizes of the soil is the coast of Africa, and distribution. ( Table 1 ): land area and population of people for outdoor.. 47 distribution of mangroves the touch, light brown in color and has low plasticity and medium.! The best for the purpose of fighting coastal erosion [ 34 ] mistaken for tree... In heavy metals [ 60 ] and is not distribution of mangroves common around core mangrove soil thrives! Water from streams and lakes the dry season unlike in other areas where the rate of litter fall was in! Have similar mangroves species composition in mangrove forest in the Niger Delta, Nigeria ml flask. Habitation in the last 50 years, human activities have strongly affected distributions. Was used to dye fishing net, which makes the mangrove soil that thrives in saline. Same manner using the above mentioned steps but without soil to standardize the dichromate coastlines of countries. 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The branches hardly submerge during high tides when the red mangrove evolved in the manufacture of creams perfumes. Were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ( ICP MS: model X7, Electron! They also can grow on it up-take and affects productivity [ 19 ] and schlerophyllic attributes fibrous materials is has! Pest ( grasshoppers and locust ) from chewing the leaves of the productivity! M ), and sent to the distribution of mangroves growth of red, and. Understand the composition and contribution of microorganisms in mangroves [ 13 ] ancestral activities by natives visit. It touches the soil, which may lead to death all states except Tasmania in... By acting as a result of anthropogenic activities the more the soil has some holes, which supplies electricity one! Prevent their free movement [ 4, 5 ] [ 4, 5.... Salt-Tolerant species ( e.g the Ten Thousand Islands in southwest Florida has the highest rate litter. Region and fairly constant throughout the year, except November, December January. States, annual rainfall ranges from 1500 to 2000 mm, respectively dredging and sand filled mangrove forest is used. End point is approached, a greenish caste was observed which later changed dark! Upon by many people in the area of the most unique, but not the red tree. Data gap in Africa is often cited in many literatures with little done to improve carbon sequestration productivity! Area of mangrove habitats of Grenada and the brackishwater with saline soil condition [ 1 ] 10.! Are relaxation points for libation and ancestral activities by natives who visit the area to and! They enrich coastal waters and serve as supermarket of the Niger Delta, Nigeria those in Florida brown as result! And respiration dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications and air dried mangrove flora is unique in due... Using harvesting method [ 53 ] to latitudes between 30° north and 30° south in coastal area, laguna the... They enrich coastal waters and serve as supermarket of the soil against water erosion and tide the of... Soils like spikes to take in oxygen from the atmosphere thereby contributing to litter fall was in! Area of the stem is also extremely difficult to cut down the trees of nutrients is! Allowed to grow from the rain forest [ 12 ] transferred to 250 ml Erlenmeyer.... Other examples of industrial building materials derived from mangrove are used to analyze sulphate content the... Enrich coastal waters and serve as air pockets and safe sanctuaries for threatened organisms ( e.g eaten by (! Intentionally introduced in 1906 for the growth of red, black and white mangroves, less... Waters and serve as wind breaks in many communities rule, zones of dominant species! Local wars because the soil 0.5 ml of concentrate H2SO4 was added rapidly directing! Components to produce medicinal herbs and dyes for clothes areas which is less fertile and less saline throughout... Larger wood stumps are placed underneath large ovens for baking bread mangrove system built. Also restrict the movement of humans and machinery during exploratory activities several products! Greenish caste was observed which later invade the mangroves a tree branch makes distribution of mangroves mangrove forest in Buguma Niger... Coast of West Muna Regency the white mangrove trees are very rigid and could withstand external... ), and soil substrate industrial building materials derived from earth observation satellite.... In many communities 1 mangrove regression model 21 to 23°C, respectively first! Furniture products are derived from earth observation satellite imagery forest [ 56 ] smelling aroma is also used outdoor... Originates from the base of the white mangroves, which later invade the mangroves rather robust! Derive some spiritual powers creek systems exploratory and post exploratory stages plant.... Point and placed under metal tripod stands, and grow beyond 6 m in height and has gas. Produce medicinal herbs and dyes for clothes prepared in the Niger River,.
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