First termed by Pythagoras, philosophy encompasses a huge body of knowledge. If yes, then why is there so much evil? Defensive pessimism (in other words, preparing for the worst even though rationally we know the worst won't happen ) could be a useful tool for managing anxiety, according to Wellesley College researchers. Blaise Pascal was a French mathematician, physicist, and religious philosopher who laid the fountain for the modern theory of probabilities, a branch of mathematics concerned with the analysis of random phenomena. Sold for €100 via Arenberg Auctions (December 2018). Le provinciali o Lettere scritte da Luigi Montalto. The poem features an array of learning, an analysis of contemporary problems, and creativity in language and imagery. Confucius, also referred to as Kong Qui or K’ung Fu-tzu, was a Chinese philosopher, teacher, and political figure largely considered the father of the Eastern style of thought. As a fixture of the history of civilization, philosophy has made a profound impact on society. Dante’s important theoretical works included discussions of rhetoric surrounding moral philosophy and political thought. Similarly, of Heraclitus' philosophy of flux and strife he wrote: Sold for €160 via Bubb Kuyper (May 2016). Seventeenth Century Philosophers (1600's) Sir Francis Bacon English (1561-1626) Sir Francis Bacon advocated the use of inductive reasoning (as opposed to the deductive reasoning used by the … Nietzsche saw Anaximander's philosophy as the "enigmatic proclamation of a true pessimist". When someone is a pessimist, they have a cognitive-attentional bias that psychologist Aaron Beck called selective abstraction. In 1657, Pascal published Les Provinciales under the pseudonym Louis de Montalte, a series of eighteen letters that defended Jansenist over Jesuit theologies. Arthur Schopenhauer, the quintessential philosophical pessimist. “Montaigne likes to point out that philosophers don’t … His logic later influenced philosophers like Voltaire and Rousseau. What are the traits of a pessimistic person? With this segment, explore some of the famous philosophers of the 20th century. These ancient Greek philosophers were influential in laying the foundations for the modern world; searching for meaning in everyday life and shaping their musings into a system of thoughts documented in books and manuscripts, letters, plays, and other media. What is life? The founder of Taoism outlined all the tenets of his globally beloved philosophy in the Tao Te Ching sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries B.C. Plato’s logic explored justice, beauty, and equality, and contained discussions in aesthetics, politics, language, and cosmology—the science of the origin and development of the universe. Rembrandt’s Philosopher in Meditation, a classical view of philosophy isolated from the world. Michel de Montaigne. Sold for €180 via Forum Auctions (June 2015). It is curious, however, that he never referred to his philosophy as pessimism in any of the works he prepared for publication. It is derived from the Latin pessimus (“worst”). In it, she argued that women deserve the same fundamental rights as men and should have an education commensurate with their position in society. Optimism: A Philosophy of Life As a philosophy of life, optimism is a choice one makes in response to uncontrollable circumstances. He also propagated a religious doctrine that taught the experience of God through the heart rather than through reason, contrary to the beliefs of French philosopher René Descartes. Critik der reinen Vernunft. Pessimism is the antithesis of optimism, an attitude of general hopefulness, coupled with the view that there is a balance of good and pleasure in the world. Sold for $1,300 via Swann Auction Galleries (May 2018). Cornel West (b. Considered one of the greatest thinkers in politics, psychology, and ethics, Aristotle learned from Plato after enrolling in his Academy at age seventeen. His best-known work, Critique of Pure Reason, determines the limits and scope of metaphysics, combining reason with experience that moves beyond that of traditional philosophy. Socrates was a Greek philosopher and is considered the primary source of Western thought. Optimism is a fundamental attitude. Technological, scientific, economic, political, cultural, social, etc., factors influence how philosophy is conducted and at least some of which questions philosophers take up. He went on to establish the Academy in Athens, one of the first institutions of higher learning in the Western world. Interestingly, the philosophy of the 20th century is known as contemporary philosophy. Philosophy can be described as the rational, abstract, and methodical consideration of reality. Theologian, Philosopher, University teacher, 20 July 1925, Algerian, French, Martiniquan. Is love just a feeling? The written records left behind, from the early works of Pythagoras to modern philosophical leaders, offer practical applications of some of the greatest intellects’ own musings. Does God actually exist? In this essay I consider this pessimistic judgment from a philosophical perspective. While her novels focused on existential themes, de Beauvoir’s philosophies were heavily influenced by the historical materialism of Karl Marx and the idealism of Immanuel Kant. He emphasized the idea that the more a person knows, the greater his or her ability to reason and make choices that will bring true happiness. The German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) is often cited as the greatest pessimist in the Western philosophical tradition. She promoted the philosophy of Objectivism, which she describes as “the concept of man as a heroic being, with his own happiness as the moral purpose of his life, with productive achievement as his noblest activity, and reason as his only absolute.” This belief was realized in her successful novel Atlas Shrugged, as well as in courses, lectures, and other literary works. He produced thousands of letters, books, pamphlets, essays, plays, among other forms of writing, most of which were centered on religion and politics. Update your email preferences at any time. Sample Essay on Optimistic and pessimistic philosophy We do not share your personal information with any company or person. Socrates believed that philosophy should achieve practical results for the greater well-being of society. We have also ensured that the ordering process is secure; you can check the security feature in the browser. “The optimist proclaims that we live in the best of all possible worlds; and the pessimist fears this is … the pessimistic philosophy of arthur schopenhauer the naturalistic philosophy of friedrich nietzche royces philosophy of loyalty the ethical realism of george edward moore ... world below you will find a comprehensive list of great philosophers and links to the term philosophy derives from the greek word philosophia which translates to a love of Sources: The Famous People | List 25 | The-Philosophy | Erratic Impact | History Lists | Biography | Encyclopedia Britannica. The term “philosophy” derives from the Greek word philosophia which translates to a “love of wisdom,” coined by pre-Socratic thinkers such as Pythagoras in the 6th century B.C. Medical problems was a priori, a classical view of philosophy isolated from the.... 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